Accepted for Publication: April 21, 2022.
Published Online: June 13, 2022. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2022.2109
Corresponding Author: Arin L. Madenci, MD, PhD, Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115 (email@example.com).
Author Contributions: Drs Dickerman and Madenci contributed equally to this work, had full access to all of the data in the study, and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Concept and design: Dickerman, Madenci, Gagnon, Cho, Casas, Hernán.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Dickerman, Madenci, Gerlovin, Kurgansky, Wise, Figueroa Muñiz, Ferolito, Gagnon, Gaziano, Cho, Hernán.
Drafting of the manuscript: Dickerman, Madenci, Cho, Casas, Hernán.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Dickerman, Madenci, Gerlovin, Kurgansky, Wise, Figueroa Muñiz, Ferolito, Gagnon, Gaziano, Cho, Hernán.
Statistical analysis: Dickerman, Madenci, Gagnon, Hernán.
Obtained funding: Gaziano, Cho, Casas, Hernán.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Gaziano, Cho.
Supervision: Gaziano, Cho, Hernán.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Mr Ferolito reported completing a 6-month paid internship with Moderna Therapeutics to help develop bioinformatic next-generation sequencing pipelines and owning 5 shares of Moderna Therapeutics stock purchased in February 2020 outside the submitted work. Dr Hernán reported receiving grants from the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) during the conduct of the study and personal fees from Cytel and ProPublica outside the submitted work. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This research was supported in part by the VA Office of Research and Development Cooperative Studies Program (CSP) Epidemiology Center at the VA Boston Healthcare System through CSP 2032, by resources and the use of facilities at the VA Boston Healthcare System and VA Informatics and Computing Infrastructure (VINCI) (VA HSR RES 13-457), and by the use of data from the VA COVID-19 Shared Data Resource. Dr Dickerman is supported by grant K99 CA248335 from the National Institutes of Health. Dr Gerlovin and Mr Ferolito are supported by grant MVP000 from the VA Million Veteran Program. Mr Figueroa Muñiz is supported by grant T32 GM140972 from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences Interdisciplinary Training Program for Biostatisticians.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The contents of this article do not represent the views of the VA or the US government. The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Health and Human Services and its agencies, including Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority and the Food and Drug Administration, as well as any other agency of the US government. Assumptions made within and interpretations from the analysis do not necessarily reflect the position of any US government entity.
Additional Contributions: We thank Daniel C. Posner, PhD, and Yuk-Lam (Anne) Ho, MPH (both Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiology Research and Information Center [MAVERIC]), for insights on COVID-19 data extraction and phenotype definitions and Constance A. Hoag, BA (MAVERIC), for management of the administrative and regulatory aspects of the project. We also thank the VA COVID-19 Shared Data Resource team for their contributions and support and the VA health care providers, employees, and volunteers for their dedication to caring for our veterans throughout this pandemic. These individuals were not paid for their contributions.
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