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Common Causes of Vaginitis

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Vaginitis is defined as infection or inflammation of the vagina. More than 70% of cases of vaginitis are attributed to vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), bacterial vaginosis (BV), or trichomoniasis.1 Symptoms include abnormal discharge, malodor, vulvovaginal pruritus, irritation, and dyspareunia. Some individuals with VVC present primarily with vulvar pruritus without vaginal discharge. However, none of these symptoms correlate well with specific diagnoses.2 Self-diagnosis, medical history, or both are insufficient for accurate diagnosis, and it is recommended that diagnostic testing be performed.1

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Article Information

Accepted for Publication: April 4, 2022.

Corresponding Author: Catherine Leclair, MD, Oregon Health & Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Rd, UHN 50, Portland, OR 97239 (leclairc@ohsu.edu).

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.

References
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Mills  BB .  Vaginitis: beyond the basics.   Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2017;44(2):159-177.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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Cartwright  CP , Lembke  BD , Ramachandran  K ,  et al.  Comparison of nucleic acid amplification assays with BD affirm VPIII for diagnosis of vaginitis in symptomatic women.   J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51(11):3694-3699. doi:10.1128/JCM.01537-13 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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Denison  HJ , Worswick  J , Bond  CM ,  et al.  Oral versus intra-vaginal imidazole and triazole anti-fungal treatment of uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (thrush).   Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020;8(8):CD002845.PubMedGoogle Scholar
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Neal  CM , Kus  LH , Eckert  LO , Peipert  JF .  Noncandidal vaginitis.   Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020;222(2):114-122.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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Li  C , Wang  T , Li  Y ,  et al.  Probiotics for the treatment of women with bacterial vaginosis.   Eur J Pharmacol. 2019;864:172660.PubMedGoogle Scholar
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Kissinger  P , Muzny  CA , Mena  LA ,  et al.  Single-dose versus 7-day-dose metronidazole for the treatment of trichomoniasis in women.   Lancet Infect Dis. 2018;18(11):1251-1259.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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