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Adenotonsillectomy, performed for approximately 500 000 children annually in the US alone, is the first line of treatment of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The Childhood Adenotonsillectomy Trial (CHAT), the first randomized clinical trial to test the efficacy of adenotonsillectomy, compared the management of pediatric nonsevere OSA by early adenotonsillectomy (eAT) vs watchful waiting with supportive care. Since the publication of the primary article in 2013, the CHAT study data set were made available via the National Sleep Research Resource, which allowed researchers to address a range of additional clinical questions relevant to the care of children with OSA. This review focuses on secondary analyses associated with the CHAT data set as grouped by the outcome of interest.
The results of most secondary analyses suggest that children who underwent eAT experienced the greatest improvements in symptom burden, sleepiness, parent-reported behavior, and quality of life. Changes in other domains, such as cognition, cardiovascular physiology, and metabolic indicators, were modest and selective. The associations between most treatment outcomes and polysomnographic parameters were weak. Symptoms were poor predictors of OSA severity. The results from these secondary analyses benefitted from the rigor of multicenter design and centralized polysomnography interpretation in CHAT. However, the exclusion of younger preschool-aged children and children with primary snoring limited the generalizability of findings. In addition, because caregivers were not masked, some of the parent-reported outcomes may have been inflated.
Conclusions and Relevance
The results of this narrative review suggest that CHAT provides a model for future OSA-related studies in children for design, conduct, and subsequent reuse of the study data set, and its findings have advanced our understanding of the pathophysiology and management of pediatric nonsevere OSA. Directions for future research include whether the findings from this landmark study are generalizable to younger children and children with primary snoring and severe OSA. Similar studies may help address practice variability associated with pediatric OSA and help identify children who are most likely to benefit from undergoing eAT.
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CME Disclosure Statement: Unless noted, all individuals in control of content reported no relevant financial relationships. If applicable, all relevant financial relationships have been mitigated.
Accepted for Publication: April 23, 2022.
Published Online: June 23, 2022. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2022.1330
Corresponding Author: Amal Isaiah, MD, PhD, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 16 S Eutaw St, Ste 500, Baltimore, MD 21201 (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Author Contributions: Drs Decuzzi and Isaiah had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Concept and design: Isaiah.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Decuzzi, Isaiah.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Redline, Isaiah.
Obtained funding: Redline.
Administrative, technical, or material support: All authors.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Redline reported grants from the National Institutes of Health during the conduct of the study as well as personal fees from Apnimed, Jazz Pharma, and Eli Lilly outside the submitted work. Dr Isaiah reported patents with royalties paid from the University of Maryland. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: The Childhood Adenotonsillectomy Trial was supported by the National Institutes of Health (grants HL083075, HL083129, UL1-RR-024134, and UL1 RR024989). The National Sleep Research Resource was supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (grants R24 HL114473 and 75N92019R002).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
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