Corresponding Author: Carol M. Mangione, MD, MSPH, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 10940 Wilshire Blvd, Ste 700, Los Angeles, CA 90024 (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Accepted for Publication: May 12, 2022.
The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) members: Carol M. Mangione, MD, MSPH; Michael J. Barry, MD; Wanda K. Nicholson, MD, MPH, MBA; Michael Cabana, MD, MA, MPH; David Chelmow, MD; Tumaini Rucker Coker, MD, MBA; Esa M. Davis, MD, MPH; Katrina E. Donahue, MD, MPH; Chyke A. Doubeni, MD, MPH; Carlos Roberto Jaén, MD, PhD, MS; Martha Kubik, PhD, RN; Li Li, MD, PhD, MPH; Gbenga Ogedegbe, MD, MPH; Lori Pbert, PhD; John M. Ruiz, PhD; James Stevermer, MD, MSPH; John B. Wong, MD.
Affiliations of The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) members: University of California, Los Angeles (Mangione); Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (Barry); University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (Nicholson, Donahue); Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York (Cabana); Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (Chelmow); University of Washington, Seattle (Coker); University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Davis); Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (Doubeni); The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (Jaén); George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia (Kubik); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (Li); New York University, New York, New York (Ogedegbe); University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (Pbert); University of Arizona, Tucson (Ruiz); University of Missouri, Columbia (Stevermer); Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (Wong).
Author Contributions: Dr Mangione had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. The USPSTF members contributed equally to the recommendation statement.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Authors followed the policy regarding conflicts of interest described at https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/about-uspstf/conflict-interest-disclosures. All members of the USPSTF receive travel reimbursement and an honorarium for participating in USPSTF meetings.
Funding/Support: The USPSTF is an independent, voluntary body. The US Congress mandates that the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) support the operations of the USPSTF.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: AHRQ staff assisted in the following: development and review of the research plan, commission of the systematic evidence review from an Evidence-based Practice Center, coordination of expert review and public comment of the draft evidence report and draft recommendation statement, and the writing and preparation of the final recommendation statement and its submission for publication. AHRQ staff had no role in the approval of the final recommendation statement or the decision to submit for publication. Recommendations made by the USPSTF are independent of the US government. They should not be construed as an official position of AHRQ or the US Department of Health and Human Services.
Additional Contributions: We thank Howard Tracer, MD (AHRQ), who contributed to the writing of the manuscript, and Lisa Nicolella, MA (AHRQ), who assisted with coordination and editing.
Additional Information: The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) makes recommendations about the effectiveness of specific preventive care services for patients without obvious related signs or symptoms. It bases its recommendations on the evidence of both the benefits and harms of the service and an assessment of the balance. The USPSTF does not consider the costs of providing a service in this assessment. The USPSTF recognizes that clinical decisions involve more considerations than evidence alone. Clinicians should understand the evidence but individualize decision-making to the specific patient or situation. Similarly, the USPSTF notes that policy and coverage decisions involve considerations in addition to the evidence of clinical benefits and harms. Published by JAMA®—Journal of the American Medical Association under arrangement with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). ©2022 AMA and United States Government, as represented by the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), by assignment from the members of the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). All rights reserved.
AE , Jun
S , Gahche
et al. Dietary supplement use differs by socioeconomic and health-related characteristics among US adults, NHANES 2011-2014. Nutrients
. 2018;10(8):1114. doi:10.3390/nu10081114PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
SL , Xu
J , Kochanek
KD , Arias
E , Tejada-Vera
B . Deaths: final data for 2018. Natl Vital Stat Rep
. 2021;69(13):1-83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
AL ; US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for high blood pressure in adults: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med
. 2015;163(10):778-786. doi:10.7326/M15-2223PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
US Preventive Services Task Force. Behavioral weight loss interventions to prevent obesity-related morbidity and mortality in adults: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA
. 2018;320(11):1163-1171. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.13022PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
US Preventive Services Task Force. Behavioral counseling interventions to promote a healthy diet and physical activity for cardiovascular disease prevention in adults with cardiovascular risk factors: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA
. 2020;324(20):2069-2075. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.21749PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
US Preventive Services Task Force. Vitamin D, calcium, or combined supplementation for the primary prevention of fractures in community-dwelling adults: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA
. 2018;319(15):1592-1599. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.3185PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
VA ; US Preventive Services Task Force. Vitamin, mineral, and multivitamin supplements for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: US Preventive services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med
. 2014;160(8):558-564. doi:10.7326/M14-0198PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
EA , Evans
CV , Ivlev
et al. Vitamin, Mineral, and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: A Systematic Evidence Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Evidence Synthesis No. 209. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2022. AHRQ publication 21-05278-EF-1.
EA , Evans
CV , Ivlev
et al. Vitamin and mineral supplements for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA
. Published June 21, 2022. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.15650Google Scholar
TE , Levine
N , Cartmel
et al; Southwest Skin Cancer Prevention Study Group. Effect of retinol in preventing squamous cell skin cancer in moderate-risk subjects: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev
. 1997;6(11):949-956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
HD , Manson
JE , Aragaki
et al; COSMOS Research Group. Effect of cocoa flavanol supplementation for prevention of cardiovascular disease events: the COSMOS randomized clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr
. Published online March 16, 2022. doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqac055PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
WG , Gaziano
JM , Hennekens
CH . Design of Physicians’ Health Study II—a randomized trial of beta-carotene, vitamins E and C, and multivitamins, in prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and eye disease, and review of results of completed trials. Ann Epidemiol
. 2000;10(2):125-134. doi:10.1016/S1047-2797(99)00042-3PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
JP , Swart
KM , Enneman
et al. Effect of daily vitamin B-12 and folic acid supplementation on fracture incidence in elderly individuals with an elevated plasma homocysteine concentration: B-PROOF, a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr
. 2014;100(6):1578-1586. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.090043PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
JT , Nyyssönen
K , Salonen
et al. Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) study: a randomized trial of the effect of vitamins E and C on 3-year progression of carotid atherosclerosis. J Intern Med
. 2000;248(5):377-386. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2796.2000.00752.xPubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
HD , Buring
JE , Christen
et al. Vitamins E and C in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in men: the Physicians’ Health Study II randomized controlled trial. JAMA
. 2008;300(18):2123-2133. doi:10.1001/jama.2008.600PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
JM , Glynn
RJ , Christen
et al. Vitamins E and C in the prevention of prostate and total cancer in men: the Physicians’ Health Study II randomized controlled trial. JAMA
. 2009;301(1):52-62. doi:10.1001/jama.2008.862PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
HE , Willett
WC , Fung
TT , Holvik
K , Feskanich
D . Association of high intakes of vitamins B6
from food and supplements with risk of hip fracture among postmenopausal women in the Nurses’ Health Study. JAMA Netw Open
. 2019;2(5):e193591. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3591PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
US Department of Agriculture and US Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2020-2025. 9th ed. US Department of Health and Human Services; 2020.