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By testing for both SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid antibodies, seroprevalence studies can estimate the proportion of a population with antibodies from previous infection (nucleocapsid antibody or infection-induced seroprevalence) and from infection or vaccination (spike antibody or combined infection- and vaccine-induced seroprevalence). US seroprevalence from July 2020 to May 2021 based on blood donations was reported previously.1 This report includes monthly estimates through the conclusion of the study in December 2021.
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CME Disclosure Statement: Unless noted, all individuals in control of content reported no relevant financial relationships. If applicable, all relevant financial relationships have been mitigated.
Accepted for Publication: May 24, 2022.
Published Online: June 13, 2022. doi:10.1001/jama.2022.9745
Corresponding Author: Jefferson M. Jones, MD, MPH, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MS V18-4, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30329-4027 (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Author Contributions: Dr Opsomer had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Concept and design: Jones, Stone, Stramer, Busch.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Jones, Opsomer, Stone, Benoit, Ferg, Stramer, Busch.
Drafting of the manuscript: Jones, Opsomer, Stramer, Busch.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Jones, Stone, Benoit, Ferg, Stramer, Busch.
Statistical analysis: Opsomer, Ferg, Busch.
Obtained funding: Jones, Stone, Busch.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Jones, Stone, Benoit, Stramer, Busch.
Supervision: Jones, Stone, Stramer, Busch.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Stramer reported receiving a contract from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) via Vitalant Research Institute outside the submitted work. Dr Busch reported being an employee of Vitalant Research Institute and serving on the medical advisory board for Creative Testing Systems; Vitalant Research Institute receives research funds and reagents for studies from Ortho and Roche and Dr Busch has presented on behalf of both companies at meetings, with travel support, but does not receive personal compensation from these or other SARS-CoV-2 test-manufacturing companies. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was funded by the CDC.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: CDC employees contributed to the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication. The CDC did not have the right to veto publication or to control the decision regarding to which journal the study was submitted.
Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the CDC.
Additional Contributions: We thank Dane Freeman, PhD, Georgia Tech Research Institute, for graphic assistance; he was compensated for his role in the study. We thank members from Vitalant Research Institute, Westat, American Red Cross, Georgia Tech Research Institute, all participating blood collection organizations, and all testing laboratories for their assistance on this project (see Supplement for organization and names of the National Blood Donor Seroprevalence Study team). Finally, we thank all blood donors who contributed to this study.
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