Survivors of COVID-19 may present with long-lasting symptoms.1 Some factors have been associated with the development of post-COVID conditions (also referred to as “long COVID”),2 including hospitalization.3 A study of older US veterans showed 15% reduction of long COVID after vaccination; however, study limitations included the low number of women and suboptimal vaccination schedules.4
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CME Disclosure Statement: Unless noted, all individuals in control of content reported no relevant financial relationships. If applicable, all relevant financial relationships have been mitigated.
Accepted for Publication: June 22, 2022.
Published Online: July 1, 2022. doi:10.1001/jama.2022.11691
Corresponding Author: Maria Rescigno, PhD, Humanitas University, Via Rita Levi Montalcini, 4, 20072 Pieve Emanuele (MI), Italy (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Author Contributions: Dr Rescigno had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Drs Azzolini and Levi contributed equally.
Concept and design: Azzolini, Mantovani, Rescigno.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Azzolini, Levi, Sarti, Pozzi, Mollura, Rescigno.
Drafting of the manuscript: Levi, Sarti, Mollura, Rescigno.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Azzolini, Sarti, Pozzi, Mantovani, Rescigno.
Statistical analysis: Levi, Sarti, Mollura.
Obtained funding: Rescigno.
Supervision: Azzolini, Pozzi, Mantovani, Rescigno.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Mantovani reported receiving personal fees for lectures from Ventana, Novartis, and Roche; consulting fees from Pierre Fabre, Verily, AbbVie, AstraZeneca, Third Rock Venture, and Merck; serving on the advisory board for Verseau Therapeutics, Myeloid Therapeutics, Imcheck Therapeutics, Ellipses, Olatec Therapeutics, Macrophage Pharma, Biovelocita, Principia, and Biolegend; grants from Novartis; and royalties for sale of reagents from Biolegend Royalties, Cedarlane Laboratories, HyCult Biotechnology, eBioscience Royalties, ABCAM Plc, Novus Biologicals, Enzo Life, and Affymetric. Dr Mantovani also reported having a patent for antihuman migration stimulating factor (MSF), a patent for NK or T cells and uses thereof, a patent for "use of SAP for the treatment of Euromycetes fungi infections,” and a patent for PTX3 as prognostic marker in COVID-19 licensed to Diasorin (prospective trial in sepsis underway). Dr Rescigno reported serving on the advisory board (with compensation) for MillBo and receiving grants from AlfaSigma, Gelesis, and Diasorin outside the submitted work. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: Fondazione Humanitas per la Ricerca funded this research.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: Fondazione Humanitas per la Ricerca did not participate in any of the following: design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: Valeria Cento, MD, PhD, Humanitas University, Daniele Braga, PhD, IRCCS Humanitas Research Hospital, and Riccardo Barbieri, PhD, Politecnico di Milano, have contributed to the study by helping with interpretation of the data or methodologically. None received compensation for their roles.
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