COVID-19 vaccination markedly decreases serious illness, hospitalization, and mortality due to SARS-CoV-2 infection, but immunity wanes, leaving individuals susceptible to COVID-19.1 Thus, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend vaccine boosters. Some subpopulations have lower rates of primary COVID-19 vaccination than others,2 suggesting that increasing numbers of individuals will lack protection against COVID-19 should booster-eligible individuals fail to receive boosters.
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CME Disclosure Statement: Unless noted, all individuals in control of content reported no relevant financial relationships. If applicable, all relevant financial relationships have been mitigated.
Accepted for Publication: May 26, 2022.
Published: July 19, 2022. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.22635
Open Access: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC-BY License. © 2022 Seal KH et al. JAMA Network Open.
Corresponding Author: Karen H. Seal, MD, MPH, San Francisco VA Health Care System, 4150 Clement St, Box 111A-1, San Francisco, CA 94121 (firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com).
Author Contributions: Dr Seal and Mr Bertenthal had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Concept and design: Seal, Bertenthal, Manuel.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Seal, Bertenthal, Pyne.
Drafting of the manuscript: Seal, Bertenthal, Manuel.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Seal, Bertenthal, Pyne.
Statistical analysis: Bertenthal.
Obtained funding: Seal, Manuel, Pyne.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Seal, Pyne.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Seal reported receiving grants from VA Health Services Research and Development during the conduct of the study. Mr Bertenthal reported receiving salary support from VA Health Services Research and Development from a grant to Dr Seal during the conduct of the study. Dr Manuel reported receiving grants from VA Health Services Research and Development during the conduct of the study. Dr Pyne reported receiving grants from the VA Health Services Research and Development during the conduct of the study. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grant SDR 21-141 from the VA Health Services Research and Development (principal investigators, Drs Seal, Manuel, and Pyne).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The sponsor had no role in the design or conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript or the decision to submit for publication.
Additional Contributions: Yasmin Jolly, BS, Nicole Woodruff-Giarbini, BS, and Nicole McCamish, MA, of the San Francisco VA Health Care System provided administrative assistance to this project, for which they were compensated.
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