Accepted for Publication: August 4, 2022.
Published Online: September 8, 2022. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2022.4299
Corresponding Author: Fiona Havers, MD, MHS, 1600 Clifton Rd, US Centers for Disease Control and PrevenMS H24-6, Atlanta, GA 30329 (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Open Access: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC-BY License. © 2022 Havers FP et al. JAMA Internal Medicine.
Author Contributions: Dr Havers had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Concept and design: Havers, Pham, Milucky, Meek, Lynfield, Como-Sabetti, Talbot.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Havers, Pham, Billing, Murthy, McMorrow.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Pham, Taylor, Whitaker, Patel, Anglin, Kambhampati, Milucky, Zell, Moline, Chai, Daily Kirley, Alden, Armistead, Yousey-Hindes, Meek, Openo, Anderson, Reeg, Kohrman, Lynfield, Como-Sabetti, Davis, Cline, Muse, Barney, Bushey, Felsen, Shiltz, Sutton, Abdullah, Talbot, Schaffner, Hill, George, Hall, Bialek, Murthy, Patel Murthy, McMorrow.
Statistical analysis: Pham, Whitaker, Patel, Milucky, Moline, Como-Sabetti.
Obtained funding: Havers, Meek, Schaffner, McMorrow.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Havers, Pham, Taylor, Anglin, Kambhampati, Milucky, Zell, Alden, Meek, Openo, Anderson, Lynfield, Como-Sabetti, Barney, Billing, Sutton, Schaffner, Hill, Hall, Murthy, Patel Murthy, McMorrow.
Supervision: Havers, Meek, Anderson, Como-Sabetti, Sutton, Talbot, Schaffner, Hill, Hall, Bialek, McMorrow.
Other - data collection and reporting: Bushey.
Other - contribution of site specific data collection information: Daily Kirley.
Other - reviewed the draft and provided comments: Abdullah.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Drs Yousey-Hindes, Lynfield, Sutton, Talbot, and Meek reported grants from US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during the conduct of the study. Dr Anderson reported grants from Pfizer, Sanofi, GSK, Janssen, MedImmune, Regeneron, PaxVax, Micron, and Merck as well as personal fees from Moderna, Pfizer, Sanofi, GSK, Janssen, Medscape, Kentucky BioProcessing Inc, and WCG and ACI outside the submitted work; additionally, his institution has also received funding from the National Institutes of Health to conduct clinical trials of COVID-19 vaccines. Drs Reeg and Kohrman reported grants from the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services during the conduct of the study. Drs Billing and Shiltz reported grants from the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CTSTE) and the CDC Dr Schaffner reported grants from CDC during the conduct of the study as well as personal fees from VBI Vaccines outside the submitted work. Drs Hill and George reported grants from CSTE during the conduct of the study. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by the CDC through an Emerging Infections Program cooperative agreement (grant CK17-1701) and through a CSTE cooperative agreement (grant NU38OT000297-02-00).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: CDC was involved with the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the CDC.
Additional Contributions: The following people were involved in the collection and management of study data and received funding from CDC for these activities: Roxanne Archer, MPH, Susan Brooks, MPH, Monica Napoles, BS, Jeremy Roland, MPH, Tiffany Tsukuda, MPH, California Emerging Infections Program; Arthur Reingold, MD, University of California, Berkeley; Rachel Herlihy, MD, MPH, Breanna Kawasaki, MPH, Sarah McLafferty, MPH, Millen Tsegaye, MHA Jordan Surgnier, MPH, Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment; Ann Basting, BS, Tessa Carter, MPH, Maria Correa, MPH, Daewi Kim, MBS, Carol Lyons, MPH, Amber Maslar, MPA, Julie Plano, MS, Hazhia Sorosindi, BS, Connecticut Emerging Infections Program, Yale School of Public Health; Katelyn Ward, MPH, Georgia Emerging Infections Program, Georgia Department of Public Health, Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine; Marina Bruck, MPH, Rayna Ceasar, BS, Gracie Chambers, BS, Taylor Eisenstein, MPH, Emily Fawcett, MPH, Asmith Joseph, MPH, Grayson Kallas, MPH, Stephanie Lehman, BSN, RN, Jana Manning, MPH, Hope Wilson, MPH, Johanna Hernandez, MPH, Sabrina Hendrick, MPH, Annabel Patterson, MPH, Allison Roebling, DVM, MPH, Chandler Surell, MPH, Georgia Emerging Infections Program, Georgia Department of Public Health, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Foundation for Atlanta Veterans Education and Research; Sue Kim, MPH, Val Tellez Nunez, MPH, Chloe Brown, MPH, Jim Collins, MPH, Justin Henderson, MPH, Shannon Johnson, MPH, Lauren Leegwater, MPH, Sierra Peguies-Khan, MPH, Michigan Department of Health and Human Services; Stephanie Meyer, MPH, Keeley Morris, MPH, Aaron Bieringer, BS, Erica Bye, MPH, Richard Danila, PhD, MPH, Corinne Holtzman, MPH, Sydney Kuramoto, MPH, Miriam Muscoplat, MPH, Kayla Bilski, MPH, Amanda Markelz, MPH, Margaret Roddy, MPH, Amy Saupe, MPH, Kristin Sweet, PhD, MPH, Minnesota Department of Health; Marianne Murphy, Murtada Khalifa, MBBS, Yassir Talha, MBBS, CDC Foundation, New Mexico Department of Health; Florent Nkouaga, MA, Melissa Judson, Sunshine Martinez, Jasmyn Sanchez, Susan L. Ropp, PhD, Chad Smelser, MD, Daniel M. Sosin, MD, MPH, New Mexico Department of Health; Dominic Rudin, BS, Kathy M. Angeles, MPH, Melissa Christian, MPH, Nancy Eisenberg, MPH, Emily B. Hancock, MS, Sarah A. Khanlian, MPH, Sarah Lathrop, DVM, PhD, Wickliffe Omondi, MPH, Mayvilynne Poblete, MA, MPH, Yadira Salazar-Sánchez, MPH, Sarah Shrum Davis, MPH, Chelsea McMullen, MSc-GH, New Mexico Emerging Infections Program; Nancy Spina, MPH, Kerianne Engesser, MPH, Suzanne McGuire, MPH, Adam Rowe, BA, New York State Department of Health; Nancy M. Bennett, MD, MS, Virginia Cafferky, BS, Maria Gaitán, BS, Christine Long, MPH, Thomas Peer, MPH, Kevin Popham, MPH, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry; Kylie Seeley, MD, MPH, Oregon Health & Science University School of Medicine; Sam Hawkins, MPH, Ama Owusu-Dommey, MPH, Emily Youngers, MPH, Breanna McArdle, MPH, Public Health Division; Oregon Health Authority; Tiffanie Markus, PhD, Kathy Billings, MPH, Katie Dyer, Anise Elie, MPH, BSN, RN, Karen Leib, BSN, RN, Terri McMinn, Danielle Ndi, MPH, Manideepthi Pemmaraju, MBBS, MPH, John Ujwok, MPH, Vanderbilt University Medical Center; Amanda Carter, BS, Ryan Chatelain, MPH, Andrew Haraghey, BS, Laine McCullough, MPH, Jacob Ortega, MPH, Andrea Price, LPN, Tyler Riedesel, MPH, Caitlin Shaw, BS, Melanie Crossland, MPH, Ashley Swain, Salt Lake County Health Department; Keegan McCaffrey, BS, Utah Department of Health; Kelly Oakeson, PhD, and Alessandro Rossi, PhD, Utah Public Health Laboratory. In addition, Li Deng, PhD, CDC, contributed statistical advice, and Hannah E. Fast, MPH, CDC, assisted with vaccination coverage data. Neither received additional funding for these activities.
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