Corresponding Author: Yaseen M. Arabi, MD, College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Intensive Care Department, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, ICU 1425, PO Box 22490, Riyadh 11426, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Accepted for Publication: August 21, 2022.
Author Contributions: Dr Arabi had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Concept and design: Arabi, Al-Dorzi, Al Aseri, Al-Omari, Tlayjeh.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Arabi, Aldekhyl, Al-Qahtani, Al-Dorzi, Abdukahil, Al Harbi, Al Qasim, Kharaba, Albrahim, Alshahrani, Al-Fares, Al Bshabshe, Mady, Al Duhailib, Algethamy, Jose, Al Mutairi, Al Zumai, Al Haji, Alaqeily, Al Aseri, Al-Dawood, Tlayjeh.
Drafting of the manuscript: Arabi, Al-Dorzi, Abdukahil.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Arabi, Aldekhyl, Al-Qahtani, Abdukahil, Al Harbi, Al Qasim, Al Duhailib, Jose, Al Mutairi, Al Zumai, Alaqeily, Al Aseri, Al-Dawood, Tlayjeh.
Obtained funding: Arabi.
Administrative, technical, or material support: All authors.
Supervision: Arabi, Aldekhyl, Al-Qahtani, Abdukahil, Al Harbi, Al Qasim, Kharaba, Albrahim, Al-Fares, Jose, Al Mutairi, Al Zumai, Al Haji, Alaqeily, Al-Omari, Al-Dawood, Tlayjeh.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Al-Dorzi reported receiving honoraria for educational activities from Sanofi outside the submitted work. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: The trial was funded by King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (grant RC20/306R), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The study funder provided support for research coordination, statistical support, and monitoring but had no role in the design of the study; data collection, study management, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Collaborators: Members of the Saudi Critical Care Trials Group are listed in Supplement 3.
Data Sharing Statement: See Supplement 4.
Additional Contributions: We would like to thank all the participating patients and their families, as well as the members of the data and safety monitoring board (DSMB): Nicholas S. Hill, MD, chair (Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts), Stefano Nava, MD (Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, IRCCS Sant’Orsola Hospital, and Respiratory and Critical Care Unit, University of Bologna, Italy), James Mojica, MD (Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital), and Michael Harhay, PhD (Epidemiology and Medicine–Pulmonary and Critical Care, Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, University of Pennsylvania). The DSMB members received honoraria for their roles.
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