Accepted for Publication: August 26, 2022.
Published: October 11, 2022. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.36053
Open Access: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC-BY License. © 2022 Kolawole OM et al. JAMA Network Open.
Corresponding Authors: Olatunji Matthew Kolawole, PhD, Microbiology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Main Campus, Ilorin, Kwara state 240003, Nigeria (email@example.com); Oyewale Tomori, PhD, Redeemer’s University, EDE, ACEGID, University Road, Gbongan-Osogbo Road, Akoda, Ede, OSUN 232103, Nigeria (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Author Contributions: Dr Kolawole had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Concept and design: Kolawole, Tomori, Agbonlahor, Ekanem, Abdulsalam, Okojie, Braide, Uzochukwu, Bello, Shehu, Gureje, Onwujekwe, Onyedum, Ezike, Bukbuk, Amazigo, Habib, Ufere, Azodoh.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Kolawole, Tomori, Agbonlahor, Ekanem, Bakare, Abdulsalam, Braide, Uzochukwu, Rafindadi, Bello, Shehu, Gureje, Lecky, Onwujekwe, Onyedum, Ezike, Bukbuk, Ashir, Anyaehie, Amazigo, Habib, Azodoh.
Drafting of the manuscript: Kolawole, Ekanem, Abdulsalam, Uzochukwu, Lecky, Ashir, Anyaehie, Habib, Ufere, Azodoh.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Kolawole, Tomori, Agbonlahor, Ekanem, Bakare, Abdulsalam, Okojie, Braide, Uzochukwu, Rafindadi, Bello, Shehu, Gureje, Onwujekwe, Onyedum, Ezike, Bukbuk, Ashir, Anyaehie, Amazigo, Habib, Ufere.
Statistical analysis: Kolawole, Tomori, Okojie, Braide, Uzochukwu, Bello, Shehu, Onwujekwe, Ezike, Bukbuk, Ashir, Habib.
Obtained funding: Kolawole, Tomori, Ufere, Azodoh.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Kolawole, Tomori, Agbonlahor, Ekanem, Bakare, Braide, Bello, Shehu, Lecky, Onwujekwe, Onyedum, Ezike, Bukbuk, Ashir, Anyaehie, Amazigo, Ufere, Azodoh.
Supervision: Kolawole, Tomori, Agbonlahor, Ekanem, Abdulsalam, Okojie, Braide, Uzochukwu, Rafindadi, Shehu, Gureje, Lecky, Onwujekwe, Onyedum, Ezike, Bukbuk, Ashir, Anyaehie, Habib, Azodoh.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: No disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was funded by a grant from the World Health Organization (WHO)-AFRO (AFNGA2018479-Award 70397).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding organization had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge Jeremiah Ikhevha Ogah, PhD, for creating the online platform for data entry, collation, and analysis of the data for this project; financial compensation was provided. We appreciate the contributions of WHO state coordinators in Nigeria and the Ministries of Health and Education in Abuja, Kwara, Kaduna, Sokoto, Edo, Akwa-Ibom, Lagos, Ondo, Enugu, Imo, Borno, and Yobe states. Acknowledgments also go to Lahor Research Diagnostics & Environmental Ltd and Biosensors Medical Diagnostics Ltd for their role in the laboratory analysis of the samples.
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