Accepted for Publication: September 8, 2022.
Published: October 21, 2022. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.38563
Open Access: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC-BY License. © 2022 Weiss J et al. JAMA Network Open.
Corresponding Author: Jasmine Weiss, MD, MHS, Division of General Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 231 MacNider Hall, Campus Box #7225, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Author Contributions: Dr Weiss had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Concept and design: Weiss, Keene, Balasuriya, Latimore, Genao.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Weiss, Holaday, Keene, Akingbesote, Sharifi, Latimore.
Drafting of the manuscript: Weiss, Akingbesote, Balasuriya, Latimore.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Weiss, Holaday, Keene, Balasuriya, Sharifi, Latimore, Genao.
Statistical analysis: Weiss, Balasuriya.
Obtained funding: Weiss.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Weiss, Akingbesote.
Supervision: Keene, Sharifi, Genao.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Weiss reported being the founder of iDream Enterprise LLC, a social enterprise to promote health care workforce diversity; and founder of Let’s Diversifi PBLLC, a social enterprise outside the submitted work. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This manuscript was supported by the Yale National Clinician Scholars Program and by Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) Grant Number TL1 TR001864 from the National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS), a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). This funding supported Dr Weiss, Dr Holaday and Dr Balasuriya during this study. Dr Holaday currently receives research support through the National Institutes of Aging of the National Institutes of Health (NIH T32AG066598). Dr Balasuriya received support from the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Office of Academic Affiliations through the VA/National Clinician Scholars Program and Yale University at the time of the study.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official view of the NIH. The contents do not represent the views of the US Department of Veterans Affairs or the United States Government.
Additional Contributions: Special thanks to Michelle Salazar, MD, MHS, Yale School of Medicine, for helping to pilot our interview guide. Dr Salazar was not compensated for her contributions.
TJ , Croft
JB , Liu
Y , Lu
H , Eke
PI , Giles
WH . Vital Signs: racial disparities in age-specific mortality among Blacks or African Americans - United States, 1999-2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
. 2017;66(17):444-456. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6617e1PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
The Commonwealth Fund. COVID-19 more prevalent, deadlier in U.S. counties with higher Black populations. doi:10.26099/y3xs-qr19
L , Eduljee
NB , Croteau
K . College student transition to synchronous virtual classes during the COVID-19 pandemic in northeastern United States. Pedagogical Research. Published 2020. Accessed September 3, 2021. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1275517
X , Hegde
S , Son
C , Keller
B , Smith
A , Sasangohar
F . Investigating mental health of US college students during the COVID-19 pandemic: cross-sectional survey study. J Med internet Res
. 2020;22(9):e22817. doi:10.2196/22817PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
I , Saikarthik
J , Senthil Kumar
K , Madhan Srinivasan
K , Ardhanaari
M , Gunapriya
R . Impact of COVID-19 outbreak on the mental health status of undergraduate medical students in a COVID-19 treating medical college: a prospective longitudinal study. PeerJ
. 2020;8:e10164. doi:10.7717/peerj.10164PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
LA , Horwitz
SM , Green
CA , Wisdom
JP , Duan
N , Hoagwood
K . Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research. Adm Policy Ment Health
. 2015;42(5):533-544. doi:10.1007/s10488-013-0528-yPubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
O , Al Sabei
S , Al Rawajfah
et al. Prevalence and predictors of depression, anxiety, and stress among youth at the time of COVID-19: an online cross-sectional multicountry study. Depress Res Treat
. 2020;2020:8887727. doi:10.1155/2020/8887727PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
M . The disproportional impact of COVID-19 on African Americans. Health Hum Rights
. 2020;22(2):299-307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
S , Kim
L , Whitaker
et al. Hospitalization rates and characteristics of patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 - COVID-NET, 14 states, March 1-30, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
. 2020;69(15):458-464. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6915e3PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
M . Pathways to success: affirming opportunities for science, mathematics, and engineering majors. J Negro Educ
. 2000;69(1/2):92-111.Google Scholar
BK , Landry
A , Trevino
R , Grande
D , Shea
JA . Understanding the leaky pipeline: perceived barriers to pursuing a career in medicine or dentistry among underrepresented-in-medicine undergraduate students. Acad Med
. 2016;91(7):987-993. doi:10.1097/ACM.0000000000001020PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
PR . Admissions to medical school during the COVID-19 era without the MCAT. J Med Educ Curric Dev
. Published online April 29, 2021. doi:10.1177/23821205211014898Crossref
E , Loebel
E , Sanky
C , Chudow
J , Fallar
R , Parkas
V . Key insights from the development and implementation of a novel virtual interview process for medical school admissions during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Acad Med
. 2021;96(8):1156-1159. doi:10.1097/ACM.0000000000004149PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
SM , Liaw
WR , Tran
C , Bazemore
AW . Estimating the residency expansion required to avoid projected primary care physician shortages by 2035. Ann Fam Med
. 2015;13(2):107-114. doi:10.1370/afm.1760PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
J , Peccoralo
L , Charney
D . Attending to the emotional well-being of the health care workforce in a New York City health system during the COVID-19 pandemic. Acad Med
. Published online April 21, 2020. doi:10.1097/ACM.0000000000003414Google ScholarCrossref