Accepted for Publication: July 22, 2022.
Published Online: October 24, 2022. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2022.3833
Open Access: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC-BY License. © 2022 Science M et al. JAMA Pediatrics.
Corresponding Author: Michelle Science, MD, MSc, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Paediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Author Contributions: Drs Science and Matava had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Drs Jüni and Matava contributed equally.
Concept and design: Science, Caldeira-Kulbakas, Anthony, Bitnun, Bourns, Campbell, Cohen, Dodds, Friedman, Greenwood, Hopkins, Imgrund, Mertz, Nashid, Streitenberger, Walsh, Matava.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Science, Caldeira-Kulbakas, Parekh, Maguire, Carroll, Bitnun, Cohen, Dubey, Hopkins, Imgrund, Korczak, Looi, Louca, Panzera, Schneiderman, Schwartz, Vuppal, Walsh, Jüni, Matava.
Drafting of the manuscript: Science, Maguire, and Matava.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Science, Caldeira-Kulbakas, Parekh, Carroll, Anthony, Bitnun, Bourns, Campbell, Cohen, Dubey, Friedman, Greenwood, Hopkins, Imgrund, Korczak, Looi, Louca, Mertz, Nashid, Panzera, Schneiderman, Schwartz, Streitenberger, Vuppal, Walsh, Jüni, Matava.
Statistical analysis: Science, Parekh, Maguire, Jüni, Matava.
Obtained funding: Science.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Science, Caldeira-Kulbakas, Parekh, Dodds, Greenwood, Hopkins, Looi, Louca, Mertz, Nashid, Panzera, Schneiderman, Schwartz, Streitenberger, Vuppal, Walsh, Matava.
Supervision: Campbell, Dodds, Imgrund, Matava.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Mr Imgrund reported nonfinancial support from Canada Strong Masks, outside the submitted work. Dr Korczak reported grants from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and fees from SickKids, Chair of Child, and Youth Medical Psychiatry Research funds, outside the submitted work. Dr Schwartz reported receiving consulting fees from the Greater Toronto Airports Authority. Dr Jüni reported honoraria to the institution from Amgen, Ava, Fresenius, and grants from Appili Therapeutics to the institution, outside the submitted work; and Dr Jüni serves as unpaid member of the steering group of trials funded by Appili Therapeutics, Abbott Vascular, and Terumo, and has participated in advisory boards and/or consulting for Amgen, Ava, and Fresenius. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by the Hospital for Sick Children Foundation.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Back to School COVID-19 School Study Group: The Back-to-School COVID-19 Simulation Study investigators are listed in Supplement 5.
Data Sharing Statement: See Supplement 6.
Additional Contributions: The authors would like to thank the following Hospital for Sick Children research assistants for their contribution to this work: Muzna Ahmad, MD, Luiza Azzouz, Bsc, Tonny H.M Banh, HBSc, Crystal L.Y. Chan, BSc Janice Chen, BSc, Marlena Colasanto, MSc, Isabel de Verteuil, BSc, Ria G. Evans, BSc (Hons), Y. Ingrid Goh, PhD, Haifan Gong, MSc, Victoria A. Gudzak, BSc, Anjelica Guytingco, BSCN, Melisa Hayalioglu, BSc, Kristina N. Kaganovich, M.FSc, Seyed H. Karimzad, PharmD, Katelynn Lundy, BSc(Hons), Lucie C. Marigliano, Bsc, Roxanne R. Noronha, BSc, Monica Prajapati, Anna Pupco, MD, Jana Radosavljevic, BSc(Hons), Olivia Rennie, Maria Salman, Arunthathy Shanmuganathan, BSc, Kristina L. Stevens, BSc (Hon), Maria Isabel T. Suarez, MPH, Maya Sumaida, RN, Milcah E. Sutanto, BSc (Hons), Nicole C. Tagle, BA(Hons), My An Tran, BSc(Hons), Carlone Van Rooyen, BHSc, RJ Williams, MA, and Yuyang Wu, BSc (Hons). The authors would also like to thank: Allison McGeer for her input on the study design; Elena Blackwood, Grace Borosz, Sally-Jane Casey, Anjelica Guytingco, Rachel Koh, Christine McGovern, Natasha Mills, Chirath Ranaweera, Melyssa Stoute, Megan Verrydt for their help facilitating the COVID testing; Tim Guimond for his help with randomization; and Derek Stephens for his statistical support. We would like to thank the schools and their teams for their considerable support of the study.
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