Recent studies highlighted a protective role for preexisting T-cell responses against subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection in exposed adults.1,2 Protection is associated with response against nonstructural,1,2 or nonspike, structural proteins.1 Responses against spike protein, the immunogen used in most current vaccines, have not been assessed.
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Accepted for Publication: July 13, 2022.
Published Online: October 24, 2022. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2022.3868
Open Access: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC-BY License. © 2022 Dowell AC et al. JAMA Pediatrics.
Corresponding Author: Alexander C. Dowell, PhD, Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom (firstname.lastname@example.org); Shamez Ladhani, MD, Immunisation and Countermeasures Division, Public Health England Colindale, London NW9 5EQ, United Kingdom (email@example.com).
Author Contributions: Dr Dowell had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Drs Moss and Ladhani served as co-senior authors and contributed equally to the work.
Concept and design: Dowell, Ladhani.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Dowell, Moss, Ladhani.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Ireland, Zuo, Ladhani.
Statistical analysis: Dowell, Moss.
Obtained funding: Moss, Ladhani.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Ireland, Zuo, Moss.
Supervision: Moss, Ladhani.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was funded by the Department of Health and Social Care and grant MR/V028448/1 (Dr Moss) from the UK Coronavirus Immunology Consortium.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funder had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
sKIDs Investigation Team: Shazaad Ahmad, MRCPath (Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, UK); Felicity Aiano, MSc (Immunisation and Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Division, UK Health Security Agency, London, United Kingdom); Gayatri Amirthalingam, MFP (Immunisation and Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Division, UK Health Security Agency, London, United Kingdom); Frances Baawuah, MRCP (Immunisation and Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Division, UK Health Security Agency, London, United Kingdom); Joanne Beckmann, MRCPCH(UK) (East London NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom); Andrew J. Brent, FRCP (Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and University of Oxford, United Kingdom); Bernadette Brent, MD (Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and University of Oxford, United Kingdom); Kevin E. Brown, FRCPath (Immunisation and Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Division, UK Health Security Agency, London, United Kingdom); Joanna Garstang, MBCHB (Birmingham Community Healthcare NHS Trust, United Kingdom); Ifeanyichukwu O. Okike, PhD, FRCPCH (UK) (Derbyshire Children’s Hospital [University Hospitals of Derby and Burton NHS Foundation Trust], Derby, United Kingdom); Mary E. Ramsay, FFPH (Immunisation and Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Division, UK Health Security Agency, London, United Kingdom).
Additional Contributions: The authors thank the sKIDs Investigation Team, schools, headteachers, staff, families, and especially the very brave children who took part in the sKIDs surveillance study.
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