Accepted for Publication: September 8, 2022.
Published: October 27, 2022. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.38871
Open Access: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC-BY License. © 2022 Grasselli G et al. JAMA Network Open.
Corresponding Author: Giacomo Grasselli, MD, Dipartimento di Anestesia, Rianimazione ed Emergenza Urgenza, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Via Francesco Sforza 35, Milan 20122, Italy (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Author Contributions: Dr Zanella and Dr Carlesso had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Drs Grasselli and Zanella contributed equally as co–first authors. Drs Pesenti and Fumagalli contributed equally as co–last authors.
Concept and design: Grasselli, Zanella, Carlesso, Florio, Canakoglu, Cabrini, Cecconi, Chiumello, Gemma, Mantovani, Mojoli, Piva, Fumagalli, Pesenti.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Grasselli, Zanella, Florio, Canakoglu, Bellani, Bottino, Cabrini, Castelli, Catena, Cecconi, Cereda, Forastieri Molinari, Foti, Gemma, Giudici, Grazioli, Lombardo, Lorini, Madotto, Mistraletti, Mojoli, Mongodì, Monti, Muttini, Piva, Protti, Rasulo, Scandroglio, Severgnini, Storti.
Drafting of the manuscript: Grasselli, Zanella, Carlesso, Florio, Canakoglu, Cabrini, Cecconi, Chiumello, Forastieri Molinari, Grazioli, Lombardo, Mantovani, Piva, Severgnini.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Grasselli, Zanella, Florio, Canakoglu, Bellani, Bottino, Cabrini, Castelli, Catena, Cecconi, Cereda, Chiumello, Foti, Gemma, Giudici, Lorini, Madotto, Mantovani, Mistraletti, Mojoli, Mongodì, Monti, Muttini, Piva, Protti, Rasulo, Scandroglio, Storti, Fumagalli, Pesenti.
Statistical analysis: Carlesso, Florio, Canakoglu, Madotto.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Bellani, Catena, Cecconi, Cereda, Foti, Lombardo.
Supervision: Grasselli, Cabrini, Cecconi, Chiumello, Forastieri Molinari, Lorini, Mistraletti, Mojoli, Monti, Piva, Storti, Fumagalli, Pesenti.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Grasselli reported receiving grants and personal fees from Fisher & Paykel, grants from Merck Sharp & Dohme, and personal fees from Getinge, Draeger Medical, Pfizer, Biotest, and Cook Medical outside the submitted work. Dr Bellani reported receiving personal fees and grants from Draeger, personal fees from Getinge, personal fees from Dimar SRL, Flowmeter SPA, and GE Healthcare outside the submitted work. Dr Cecconi reported receiving personal fees from Edwards Life Sciences Consultancy and Directed Systems Consultancy outside the submitted work. Dr Mantovani reported receiving personal fees from Novartis (lecturer), Roche (lecturer), Ventana (lecturer), Pierre Fabre (consultancy), Verily (consultancy), Abbvie (consultancy), Bristol Myers Squibb (consultancy), Johnson & Johnson (consultancy), Imcheck (advisory board member), Myeloid Therapeutics (advisory board member), Astra Zeneca (consultancy and lecturer), Biovelocita (advisory board member), BG Fund (advisory board member), Third Rock Venture (consultancy), Biolegend (advisory board member), Verseau Therapeutics (advisory board member), Macrophage Pharma (advisory board member), Ellipses Pharma (advisory board member), and Olatec Therapeutics (advisory board member) outside the submitted work; and receipt of royalties for the sale of reagents related to innate immunity. Dr Mojoli reported receiving personal fees from Seda Spa (lecturer), GE Healthcare (lecturer), and Hamilton Medical (lecturer) outside the submitted work; and consultancy agreement between Hamilton Medical and University of Pavia. Dr Mongodì reported receiving personal fees from GH Healthcare (lecturer) outside the submitted work. Dr Pesenti reported receiving personal fees from Maquet, Xenios, Baxter International, and Boehringer Ingelheim outside the submitted work. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was (partially) funded by Italian Ministry of Health–Current research IRCCS (Istituto di Ricerca e Cura a Carattere Scientifico).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funder had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
The COVID-19 Lombardy ICU Network: Members of the COVID-19 Lombardy ICU Network appear in Supplement 2.
Additional Contributions: We thank Marina Leonardelli and Patrizia Minunno (Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico) for administrative support. We thank all the health care staff of the COVID-19 Lombardy ICU Network. We thank Osservatorio Epidemiologico Regionale and the Azienda Regionale per l’Innovazione e gli Acquisti (ARIA) S.p.a. for the support of this research. We thank Douglas Slobod, MD, for English revision of the manuscript. These additional contributors were not compensated.
Additional Information: Data are not publicly available. This study is based on databases maintained by Regione Lombardia.
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