Accepted for Publication: September 18, 2022.
Published: November 2, 2022. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.39860
Open Access: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC-BY-NC-ND License. © 2022 Chen KL et al. JAMA Network Open.
Corresponding Author: Katherine L. Chen, MD, Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, 1100 Glendon Ave, Ste 900, Los Angeles, CA 90024 (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Author Contributions: Drs Chen and Shekelle had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Concept and design: Chen, Miake-Lye, Zimmerman, McGrath, Shekelle.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Chen, Miake-Lye, Begashaw, Larkin, Shekelle.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Chen, Miake-Lye, Begashaw, Zimmerman, McGrath, Shekelle.
Statistical analysis: Chen.
Obtained funding: Shekelle.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Chen, Miake-Lye, Begashaw, Zimmerman.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Drs Shekelle and Miake-Lye and Mss Begshaw and Larkin were supported in part by a grant from Humana to University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Dr Chen reported receiving support from the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) via the National Research Services Award T32 Primary Care Research Fellowship at UCLA. Ms. McGrath is a Humana employee. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was sponsored by Humana Inc (award 1529619).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funder participated in design and conduct of the study (specifically, in setting the scope of the review) and in interpretation of the data via author Ms McGrath. The funder had no role in collection, management, or analysis of the data.
Disclaimer: The contents are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of, nor an endorsement by, the HRSA, HHS or the US government.
Additional Contributions: The authors wish to thank Kathryn Leifheit, PhD, MSPH, UCLA, Lillian Gelberg, MD, UCLA, Teryl Nuckols, MD, MSHS, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, and Paul Ong, PhD, UCLA, for their feedback on the conceptual framework. They were not compensated for their contributions.
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