[Skip to Content]
[Skip to Content Landing]

Evaluation of the Safety and Effectiveness of Nutritional Supplements for Treating Hair LossA Systematic Review

To identify the key insights or developments described in this article
1 Credit CME
Key Points

Question  Are nutritional supplements or dietary interventions safe and effective for patients with hair loss?

Findings  In this systematic review of 30 studies of nutritional interventions, the highest-quality evidence suggests the potential effectiveness of Viviscal, Nourkrin, Nutrafol, Lamdapil, Pantogar, Capsaicin and isoflavone, omega 3 and 6 with antioxidants, apple nutraceutical, total glucosides of paeony and compound glycyrrhizin tablets, zinc, tocotrienol, and pumpkin seed oil. No data for dietary interventions were identified.

Meaning  The findings of this systematic review indicate that nutritional interventions may benefit select patients with hair loss, and although few adverse events were reported, physicians should engage in shared decision-making with patients given the lack of federal oversight of these regimens.

Abstract

Importance  Despite the widespread use of nutritional supplements and dietary interventions for treating hair loss, the safety and effectiveness of available products remain unclear.

Objective  To evaluate and compile the findings of all dietary and nutritional interventions for treatment of hair loss among individuals without a known baseline nutritional deficiency.

Evidence Review  The MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL databases were searched from inception through October 20, 2021, to identify articles written in English with original findings from investigations of dietary and nutritional interventions in individuals with alopecia or hair loss without a known baseline nutritional deficiency. Quality was assessed with Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine criteria. Outcomes of interest were disease course, both objectively and subjectively measured. Data were evaluated from January 3 to 11, 2022.

Findings  The database searches yielded 6347 citations to which 11 articles from reference lists were added. Of this total, 30 articles were included: 17 randomized clinical trials (RCTs), 11 clinical studies (non-RCT), and 2 case series studies. No diet-based interventional studies met inclusion criteria. Studies of nutritional interventions with the highest-quality evidence showed the potential benefit of Viviscal, Nourkrin, Nutrafol, Lamdapil, Pantogar, capsaicin and isoflavone, omegas 3 and 6 with antioxidants, apple nutraceutical, total glucosides of paeony and compound glycyrrhizin tablets, zinc, tocotrienol, and pumpkin seed oil. Kimchi and cheonggukjang, vitamin D3, and Forti5 had low-quality evidence for disease course improvement. Adverse effects were rare and mild for all the therapies evaluated.

Conclusions and Relevance  The findings of this systematic review should be interpreted in the context of each study’s design; however, this work suggests a potential role for nutritional supplements in the treatment of hair loss. Physicians should engage in shared decision-making by covering the potential risks and benefits of these treatments with patients experiencing hair loss. Future research should focus on larger RCTs with active comparators.

Sign in to take quiz and track your certificates

Buy This Activity

JN Learning™ is the home for CME and MOC from the JAMA Network. Search by specialty or US state and earn AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™ from articles, audio, Clinical Challenges and more. Learn more about CME/MOC

CME Disclosure Statement: Unless noted, all individuals in control of content reported no relevant financial relationships. If applicable, all relevant financial relationships have been mitigated.

Article Information

Accepted for Publication: September 18, 2022.

Published Online: November 30, 2022. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2022.4867

Corresponding Author: Arash Mostaghimi, MD, MPA, MPH, Department of Dermatology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, 221 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115 (amostaghimi@bwh.harvard.edu).

Author Contributions: Ms Drake and Dr Mostaghimi had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Concept and design: Reyes-Hadsall, Heinrich, Huang, Mostaghimi.

Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.

Drafting of the manuscript: Drake, Reyes-Hadsall, Martinez, Heinrich, Mostaghimi.

Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Drake, Reyes-Hadsall, Huang, Mostaghimi.

Statistical analysis: Drake, Martinez.

Administrative, technical, or material support: Drake, Reyes-Hadsall, Martinez, Heinrich, Mostaghimi.

Supervision: Huang, Mostaghimi.

Other: Martinez.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Huang reported personal fees from Concert and Pfizer outside the submitted work; holding patents for ALTO, BETA, and BELA licensed; and participation in alopecia-related clinical trials by Incyte, Lilly, Concert, and Aclaris, all outside the submitted work. Dr Mostaghimi reported consulting fees from Pfizer, Concert, Lilly, Hims and Hers, Equillium, AbbVie, Digital Diagnostics, and Bioniz, and grants from Pfizer, all outside the submitted work. No other disclosures were reported.

Disclaimer: Dr Arash Mostaghimi is an Associate Editor of JAMA Dermatology but was not involved in any of the decisions regarding review of the manuscript or its acceptance.

References
1.
Ronis  MJJ , Pedersen  KB , Watt  J .  Adverse effects of nutraceuticals and dietary supplements.   Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2018;58:583-601. doi:10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-010617-052844 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
2.
Burns  LJ , Senna  MM .  Supplement use among women experiencing hair loss.   Int J Womens Dermatol. 2020;6(3):211. doi:10.1016/j.ijwd.2020.01.002PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
3.
Hosking  AM , Juhasz  M , Atanaskova Mesinkovska  N .  Complementary and alternative treatments for alopecia: a comprehensive review.   Skin Appendage Disord. 2019;5(2):72-89. doi:10.1159/000492035PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
4.
Tkachenko  E , Okhovat  JP , Manjaly  P , Huang  KP , Senna  MM , Mostaghimi  A .  Complementary & alternative medicine for alopecia areata: a systematic review.   J Am Acad Dermatol. 2019;S0190-9622(19)33304-3. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2019.12.027 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
5.
Okhovat  JP , Drake  L , Marks  DH , Manatis-Lornell  A , Hagigeorges  D , Senna  MM .  Use of oral supplements in patients with hair loss disorders.   J Am Acad Dermatol. 2019;81(4):AB144. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2019.06.539 Google ScholarCrossref
6.
Page  MJ , McKenzie  JE , Bossuyt  PM ,  et al.  The PRISMA 2020 statement: an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews.   BMJ. 2021;372(71):n71. doi:10.1136/bmj.n71 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
7.
Lefebvre  C , Glanville  J , Briscoe  S ,  et al.  Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions; 2019:67-107. doi:10.1002/9781119536604.ch4
8.
The Center for Evidence-Based Medicine; OCEBM Levels of Evidence Working Group. Accessed October 24, 2022. https://www.cebm.ox.ac.uk/resources/levels-of-evidence/ocebm-levels-of-evidence
9.
Prager  N , Bickett  K , French  N , Marcovici  G .  A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of botanically derived inhibitors of 5-alpha-reductase in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia.   J Altern Complement Med. 2002;8(2):143-152. doi:10.1089/107555302317371433 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
10.
Rossi  A , Mari  E , Scarno  M ,  et al.  Comparative effectiveness of finasteride vs Serenoa repens in male androgenetic alopecia: a two-year study.   Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2012;25(4):1167-1173. doi:10.1177/039463201202500435 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
11.
Cho  YH , Lee  SY , Jeong  DW ,  et al.  Effect of pumpkin seed oil on hair growth in men with androgenetic alopecia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.   Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;549721. doi:10.1155/2014/549721PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
12.
Nichols  AJ , Hughes  OB , Canazza  A , Zaiac  MN .  An open-label evaluator blinded study of the efficacy and safety of a new nutritional supplement in androgenetic alopecia: a pilot study.   J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2017;10(2):52-56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
13.
Sattar  F , Almas  U , Ibrahim  NA ,  et al.  Efficacy of oral vitamin D3 therapy in patients suffering from diffuse hair loss (telogen effluvium).   J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2021;67(1):68-71. doi:10.3177/jnsv.67.68PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
14.
Ead  RD .  Oral zinc sulphate in alopacia areata-a double blind trial.   Br J Dermatol. 1981;104(4):483-484. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.1981.tb15323.xPubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
15.
Siavash  M , Tavakoli  F , Mokhtari  F .  Comparing the effects of zinc sulfate, calcium pantothenate, their combination and minoxidil solution regimens on controlling hair loss in women: a randomized controlled trial.   J Res Pharm Pract. 2017;6(2):89-93. doi:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_17_17 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
16.
Sharquie  KE , Noaimi  AA , Shwail  ER .  Oral zinc sulphate in treatment of alopecia areata (double blind; cross-over study).   J Clin Exp Dermatol Res. 2012;3(150). Google Scholar
17.
Daly  T , Daly  K .  telogen effluvium with dysesthesia (ted) has lower B12 levels and may respond to b12 supplementation.   J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(11):1236-1240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
18.
Le Floc’h  C , Cheniti  A , Connétable  S , Piccardi  N , Vincenzi  C , Tosti  A .  Effect of a nutritional supplement on hair loss in women.   J Cosmet Dermatol. 2015;14(1):76-82. doi:10.1111/jocd.12127PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
19.
Beoy  LA , Woei  WJ , Hay  YK .  Effects of tocotrienol supplementation on hair growth in human volunteers.   Trop Life Sci Res. 2010;21(2):91-99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
20.
Yang  D , Zheng  J , Zhang  Y , Jin  Y , Gan  C , Bai  Y .  Total glucosides of paeony capsule plus compound glycyrrhizin tablets for the treatment of severe alopecia areata in children: a randomized controlled trial.   Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:378219. doi:10.1155/2013/378219 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
21.
Lengg  N , Heidecker  B , Seifert  B , Trüeb  R .  Dietary supplement increases anagen hair rate in women with telogen effluvium: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.   Therapy. 2007;4:59-65. doi:10.2217/14750708.4.1.59 Google ScholarCrossref
22.
Park  DW , Lee  HS , Shim  MS , Yum  KJ , Seo  JT .  Do kimchi and cheonggukjang probiotics as a functional food improve androgenetic alopecia? a clinical pilot study.   World J Mens Health. 2020;38(1):95-102. doi:10.5534/wjmh.180119PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
23.
Harada  N , Okajima  K , Arai  M , Kurihara  H , Nakagata  N .  Administration of capsaicin and isoflavone promotes hair growth by increasing insulin-like growth factor-I production in mice and in humans with alopecia.   Growth Horm IGF Res. 2007;17(5):408-415. doi:10.1016/j.ghir.2007.04.009 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
24.
Keophiphath  M , Courbière  C , Manzato  L , Lamour  I , Gaillard  E .  Miliacin encapsulated by polar lipids stimulates cell proliferation in hair bulb and improves telogen effluvium in women.   J Cosmet Dermatol. 2020;19(2):485-493. doi:10.1111/jocd.12998 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
25.
Lassus  A , Eskelinen  E .  A comparative study of a new food supplement, ViviScal, with fish extract for the treatment of hereditary androgenic alopecia in young males.   J Int Med Res. 1992;20(6):445-453. doi:10.1177/030006059202000601PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
26.
Ablon  G .  A 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the ability of a marine complex supplement to promote hair growth in men with thinning hair.   J Cosmet Dermatol. 2016;15(4):358-366. doi:10.1111/jocd.12265PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
27.
Glynis  A .  A double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the efficacy of an oral supplement in women with self-perceived thinning hair.   J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2012;5(11):28-34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
28.
Ablon  G , Dayan  S .  A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center, extension trial evaluating the efficacy of a new oral supplement in women with self-perceived thinning hair.   J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2015;8(12):15-21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
29.
Ablon  G .  A 3-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the ability of an extra-strength marine protein supplement to promote hair growth and decrease shedding in women with self-perceived thinning hair.   Dermatol Res Pract. 2015;2015:841570. doi:10.1155/2015/841570PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
30.
Rizer  RL , Stephens  TJ , Herndon  JH , Sperber  BR , Murphy  J , Ablon  GR .  A marine protein-based dietary supplement for subclinical hair thinning/loss: results of a multisite, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.   Int J Trichology. 2015;7(4):156-166. doi:10.4103/0974-7753.171573 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
31.
Thom  E .  Efficacy and tolerability of Hairgain in individuals with hair loss: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study.   J Int Med Res. 2001;29(1):2-6. doi:10.1177/147323000102900101PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
32.
Thom  E .  Nourkrin: objective and subjective effects and tolerability in persons with hair loss.   J Int Med Res. 2006;34(5):514-519. doi:10.1177/147323000603400508PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
33.
Ablon  G , Kogan  S .  A six-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the safety and efficacy of a nutraceutical supplement for promoting hair growth in women with self-perceived thinning hair.   J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(5):558-565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
34.
Ablon  G , Kogan  S .  A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a nutraceutical supplement for promoting hair growth in perimenopausal, menopausal, and postmenopausal women with thinning hair.   J Drugs Dermatol. 2021;20(1):55-61. doi:10.36849/JDD.5701PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
35.
Burgess  C , Roberts  W , Downie  J , Kera  M , Kogan  S , Belpulsi  D .  A closer look at a multi-targeted approach to hair loss in African American women.   J Drugs Dermatol. 2020;19(1):95-98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
36.
Nistico  S , Tamburi  F , Bennardo  L ,  et al.  Treatment of telogen effluvium using a dietary supplement containing Boswellia serrata, Curcuma longa, and Vitis vinifera: results of an observational study.   Dermatol Ther. 2019;32(3):e12842. doi:10.1111/dth.12842PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
37.
Tenore  GC , Caruso  D , Buonomo  G ,  et al.  Annurca apple nutraceutical formulation enhances keratin expression in a human model of skin and promotes hair growth and tropism in a randomized clinical trial.   J Med Food. 2018;21(1):90-103. doi:10.1089/jmf.2017.0016PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
38.
Narda  M , Aladren  S , Cestone  E , Nobile  V .  Efficacy and safety of a food supplement containing L-cystine, Serenoa repens extract and biotin for hair loss in healthy males and females. a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, controlled clinical trial.   J Cosmo Trichol. 2017;3:3. doi:10.4172/2471-9323.1000127 Google ScholarCrossref
39.
Wilt  T , Ishani  A , Mac Donald  R .  Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia.   Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001423. PubMedGoogle Scholar
40.
Murugusundram  S .  Serenoa repens: does it have any role in the management of androgenetic alopecia?   J Cutan Aesthet Surg. 2009;2(1):31-32. doi:10.4103/0974-2077.53097 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
41.
Hong  H , Kim  CS , Maeng  S .  Effects of pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil in Korean men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia.   Nutr Res Pract. 2009;3(4):323-327. doi:10.4162/nrp.2009.3.4.323 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
42.
Carbin  BE , Larsson  B , Lindahl  O .  Treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia with phytosterols.   Br J Urol. 1990;66(6):639-641. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.1990.tb07199.x PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
43.
Banihashemi  M , Nahidi  Y , Meibodi  NT , Jarahi  L , Dolatkhah  M .  Serum vitamin D3 level in patients with female pattern hair loss.   Int J Trichology. 2016;8(3):116-120. doi:10.4103/0974-7753.188965 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
44.
Rasheed  H , Mahgoub  D , Hegazy  R ,  et al.  Serum ferritin and vitamin D in female hair loss: do they play a role?   Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2013;26(2):101-107. doi:10.1159/000346698 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
45.
Lee  S , Kim  BJ , Lee  CH , Lee  WS .  Increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with alopecia areata: a systematic review and meta-analysis.   J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2018;32(7):1214-1221. doi:10.1111/jdv.14987Google ScholarCrossref
46.
Thompson  JM , Mirza  MA , Park  MK , Qureshi  AA , Cho  E .  The Role of micronutrients in alopecia areata: a review.   Am J Clin Dermatol. 2017;18(5):663-679. doi:10.1007/s40257-017-0285-xPubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
47.
Abdel Fattah  NS , Atef  MM , Al-Qaradaghi  SM .  Evaluation of serum zinc level in patients with newly diagnosed and resistant alopecia areata.   Int J Dermatol. 2016;55(1):24-29. doi:10.1111/ijd.12769 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
48.
Mussalo-Rauhamaa  H , Lakomaa  EL , Kianto  U , Lehto  J .  Element concentrations in serum, erythrocytes, hair and urine of alopecia patients.   Acta Derm Venereol. 1986;66(2):103-109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
49.
Soleymani  T , Lo Sicco  K , Shapiro  J .  The infatuation with biotin supplementation: is there truth behind its rising popularity? a comparative analysis of clinical efficacy versus social popularity.   J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(5):496-500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
50.
The US Food and Drug Administration. The FDA Warns That Biotin May Interfere with Lab Tests: FDA Safety Communication. Accessed October 24, 2022. https://www.fda.gov/medical-devices/in-vitro-diagnostics/biotin-interference-troponin-lab-tests-assays-subject-biotin-interference
51.
Prie  BE , Iosif  L , Tivig  I , Stoian  I , Giurcaneanu  C .  Oxidative stress in androgenetic alopecia.   J Med Life. 2016;9(1):79-83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
52.
Savci  U , Senel  E , Oztekin  A , Sungur  M , Erel  O , Neselioglu  S .  Ischemia-modified albumin as a possible marker of oxidative stress in patients with telogen effluvium.   An Bras Dermatol. 2020;95(4):447-451. doi:10.1016/j.abd.2020.01.005 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
53.
Öztürk  P , Arıcan  Ö , Kurutaş  EB , Mülayim  K .  Oxidative stress biomarkers and Adenosine deaminase over the alopecic area of the patients with alopecia areata.   Balkan Med J. 2016;33(2):188-192. doi:10.5152/balkanmedj.2016.16190 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
54.
Sutter  ME , Thomas  JD , Brown  J , Morgan  B .  Selenium toxicity: a case of selenosis caused by a nutritional supplement.   Ann Intern Med. 2008;148(12):970-971. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-148-12-200806170-00015 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
55.
Kmieć  ML , Pajor  A , Broniarczyk-Dyła  G .  Evaluation of biophysical skin parameters and assessment of hair growth in patients with acne treated with isotretinoin.   Postepy Dermatol Alergol. 2013;30(6):343-349. doi:10.5114/pdia.2013.39432 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
56.
Reis  PJ , Tunks  DA , Sharry  LF .  Plasma amino acid patterns in sheep receiving abomasal infusions of methionine and cystine.   Aust J Biol Sci. 1973;26(3):635-644. doi:10.1071/BI9730635 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
57.
Kim  IS , Hwang  CW , Yang  WS , Kim  CH .  Current perspectives on the physiological activities of fermented soybean-derived cheonggukjang.   Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(11):5746. doi:10.3390/ijms22115746PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
58.
Panchaprateep  R , Asawanonda  P .  Insulin-like growth factor-1: roles in androgenetic alopecia.   Exp Dermatol. 2014;23(3):216-218. doi:10.1111/exd.12339 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
59.
Horesh  EJ , Chéret  J , Paus  R .  Growth hormone and the human hair follicle.   Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(24):13205. doi:10.3390/ijms222413205 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
60.
Harada  N , Okajima  K .  Effect of topical application of capsaicin and its related compounds on dermal insulin-like growth factor-I levels in mice and on facial skin elasticity in humans.   Growth Horm IGF Res. 2007;17(2):171-176. doi:10.1016/j.ghir.2006.12.005 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
61.
Boisnic  S , Branchet  MC , Gaillard  E , Lamour  I .  Miliacin associated with polar lipids: effect on growth factors excretion and extracellular matrix of the dermal papilla hair follicle model maintained in survival conditions.   Hair Ther Transplant. 2016;6:2. doi:10.4172/2167-0951.1000143Google ScholarCrossref
62.
Hornfeldt  CS , Holland  M , Bucay  VW , Roberts  WE , Waldorf  HA , Dayan  SH .  The safety and efficacy of a sustainable marine extract for the treatment of thinning hair: a summary of new clinical research and results from a panel discussion on the problem of thinning hair and current treatments.   J Drugs Dermatol. 2015;14(9):s15-s22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
63.
Wadstein  J , Thom  E , Gadzhigoroeva  A .  Integral roles of specific proteoglycans in hair growth and hair loss: mechanisms behind the bioactivity of proteoglycan replacement therapy with Nourkrin® with Marilex® in pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium.   Dermatol Res Pract. 2020;2020:8125081. doi:10.1155/2020/8125081 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
64.
Di Francesco  S , Savio  M , Bloise  N , Borroni  G , Stivala  LA , Borroni  RG .  Red grape (Vitis vinifera L.) flavonoids down-regulate collagen type III expression after UV-A in primary human dermal blood endothelial cells.   Exp Dermatol. 2018;27(9):973-980. doi:10.1111/exd.13682 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
65.
Gomaa  AA , Farghaly  HSM , El-Sers  DA , Farrag  MM , Al-Zokeim  NI .  Inhibition of adiposity and related metabolic disturbances by polyphenol-rich extract of Boswellia serrata gum through alteration of adipo/cytokine profiles.   Inflammopharmacology. 2019;27(3):549-559. doi:10.1007/s10787-018-0519-4 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
66.
Vaughn  AR , Branum  A , Sivamani  RK .  Effects of turmeric (curcuma longa) on skin health: a systematic review of the clinical evidence.   Phytother Res. 2016;30(8):1243-1264. doi:10.1002/ptr.5640 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
67.
Kamimura  A , Takahashi  T , Watanabe  Y .  Investigation of topical application of procyanidin B-2 from apple to identify its potential use as a hair growing agent.   Phytomedicine. 2000;7(6):529-536. doi:10.1016/S0944-7113(00)80040-9 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
68.
Kamimura  A , Takahashi  T , Morohashi  M , Takano  Y .  Procyanidin oligomers counteract TGF-beta1- and TGF-beta2-induced apoptosis in hair epithelial cells: an insight into their mechanisms.   Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2006;19(5):259-265. doi:10.1159/000093981 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
69.
Hibino  T , Nishiyama  T .  Role of TGF-beta2 in the human hair cycle.   J Dermatol Sci. 2004;35(1):9-18. doi:10.1016/j.jdermsci.2003.12.003 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
70.
Tenore  GC , Campiglia  P , Stiuso  P , Ritieni  A , Novellino  E .  Nutraceutical potential of polyphenolic fractions from Annurca apple (M. pumila Miller cv Annurca).   Food Chem. 2013;140(4):614-622. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.10.112 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
71.
Kwon  Y .  Use of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) extract for benign prostatic hyperplasia.   Food Sci Biotechnol. 2019;28(6):1599-1606. doi:10.1007/s10068-019-00605-9 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
72.
US Food and Drug Administration. Questions and Answers on Dietary Supplements. Accessed October 24, 2022. https://www.fda.gov/food/information-consumers-using-dietary-supplements/questions-and-answers-dietary-supplements
Close
Want full access to the AMA Ed Hub?
After you sign up for AMA Membership, make sure you sign in or create a Physician account with the AMA in order to access all learning activities on the AMA Ed Hub
Buy this activity
Close
Want full access to the AMA Ed Hub?
After you sign up for AMA Membership, make sure you sign in or create a Physician account with the AMA in order to access all learning activities on the AMA Ed Hub
Buy this activity
Close
With a personal account, you can:
  • Access free activities and track your credits
  • Personalize content alerts
  • Customize your interests
  • Fully personalize your learning experience
Education Center Collection Sign In Modal Right
Close

Name Your Search

Save Search
With a personal account, you can:
  • Access free activities and track your credits
  • Personalize content alerts
  • Customize your interests
  • Fully personalize your learning experience
Close
Close

Lookup An Activity

or

My Saved Searches

You currently have no searches saved.

Close

My Saved Courses

You currently have no courses saved.

Close