An adaptive intervention is a set of diagnostic, preventive, therapeutic, or engagement strategies that are used in stages, and the selection of the intervention at each stage is based on defined decision rules. At the beginning of each stage in care, treatment may be changed by the clinician to suit the needs of the patient. Typical adaptations include intensifying an ongoing treatment or adding or switching to another treatment. These decisions are made in response to changes in the patient’s status, such as a patient’s early response to, or engagement with, a prior treatment. The patient experiences an adaptive intervention as a sequence of personalized treatments.
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CME Disclosure Statement: Unless noted, all individuals in control of content reported no relevant financial relationships. If applicable, all relevant financial relationships have been mitigated.
Corresponding Author: Kelley M. Kidwell, PhD, Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, SPH II 4164, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (email@example.com).
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: Supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (R01DA039901; R01MH114203; R01HD095973; R01DA047279; and P50DA054039), Institute for Education Sciences (R324B220001), and Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (ME-2020C3-20925).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript or the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank Ian Burnette, MFA, Data Science for Dynamic Intervention Decision-making Center (d3c) at the University of Michigan, for helpful suggestions and for creating the artwork that was the basis for the figure.
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