The operating room (OR) is a dynamic environment where surgeons, nurses, anesthesia providers, and technicians must work effectively as a team to provide optimal patient care. The success of surgery depends significantly on nontechnical skills: vigilance, leadership, decision-making, communication, teamwork, and conflict resolution.1 The American College of Surgeons closed claims study found that failure to communicate was pervasive and accounted for 22% of the preventable complications.2
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CME Disclosure Statement: Unless noted, all individuals in control of content reported no relevant financial relationships. If applicable, all relevant financial relationships have been mitigated.
Corresponding Author: Cullen D. Jackson, PhD, Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave, Yamins 2, Boston, MA 02215 (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Published Online: March 15, 2023. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2022.6721
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr De reported grants from the National Institutes of Health during the conduct of the study. Dr Jackson reported grants from the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering during the conduct of the study and grants from CRICO Risk Management Foundation and the National Cancer Institute outside the submitted work. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: Research reported in this publication was supported in part by the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (grants 2R01EB005807-05A1 and 2R01EB005807-09A1).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funder had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Credit Designation Statement: The American Medical Association designates this Journal-based CME activity activity for a maximum of 1.00 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
Successful completion of this CME activity, which includes participation in the evaluation component, enables the participant to earn up to:
It is the CME activity provider's responsibility to submit participant completion information to ACCME for the purpose of granting MOC credit.
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