The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a constellation of conditions sharing the central feature of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, typically mediated by diffuse alveolocapillary permeability and inflammation, that results in impaired gas exchange severe enough to pose an immediate threat to life.1ARDS was first described more than 50 years ago and arises from conditions such as trauma, massive blood transfusion, septic shock, or pneumonia.1 The development of ARDS is ominous. While advances in intensive care over the past decades have resulted in improved outcomes, hospital mortality rate due to ARDS is still 40%.2 Arguably, the most striking example of ARDS is the severe respiratory failure that develops secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection, responsible for a massive death toll worldwide, not to mention the colossal burden on hospital and intensive care services.
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Corresponding Author: Derek C. Angus, MD, MPH, Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, 3550 Terrace Ave, Scaife Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (email@example.com).
Published Online: June 17, 2023. doi:10.1001/jama.2023.6812
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Angus is a lifetime honorary member of ESICM and he was co–principal investigator of the NHLBI PETAL Network ROSE trial, testing neuromuscular blockade in patients with severe ARDS. Dr Seymour reported receiving grants from NIH/NIGMS during the conduct of this work, personal fees from Inotrem Inc, and personal fees from Beckman Inc outside the submitted work. No other disclosures were reported.
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