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Infectious Diseases August 3, 2022

What Every Doctor Should Know About Monkeypox (Mpox), including Available Vaccines

The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared monkeypox (mpox) a public health emergency of international concern. Since 1970, the rare disease, caused by an infection of the mpox virus (a close relative of smallpox) was primarily found in central and western Africa, but in 2022, mpox has triggered outbreaks in many non-endemic countries. To help stop the spread, it’s critical for all health care providers to understand the signs and symptoms of mpox, how transmission works and who is vaccine eligible. 


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  1. Early symptoms of monkeypox (mpox) are flu-like—but not all patients experience them. 

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), monkeypox (mpox) symptoms are similar to smallpox symptoms but tend to be milder. They may include fever, headache, back and muscle aches, swollen lymph nodes, chills and fatigue. Not all patients with mpox experience flu-like symptoms before developing a rash, however; some only experience a rash or sores. A mpox rash resembles pimples or blisters on or inside the genitals or anus, but the pox-like bumps may also appear on the face, hands, feet, chest or inside of the mouth. The rash goes through several phases—evolving, as the American Academy of Dermatology Association (AAD) explains, from macules to papules to vesicles to pustules before scabbing and then crusting over. The illness typically lasts about two to four weeks.

  2. Monkeypox (mpox) rashes might be mistaken for herpes, chicken pox or shingles. 

    There are differences to these rashes. For example, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) notes that in the case of mpox, “the skin eruptions are all at a given time, unlike chicken pox (varicella virus), which has vesicular lesions that erupt at different stages.” The AAD advises looking at the pattern on the skin and where the rash appears to narrow down which disease is causing the rash. If mpox is likely, the rash or skin lesion can be swabbed and the swab sent to a lab for a PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) test to determine whether the mpox virus is present. The CDC offers additional guidance on how to recognize mpox

  3. Monkeypox (mpox) can be transmitted in a variety of ways—to anyone.

    Anyone can develop monkeypox (mpox). It spreads from person to person through "close, personal, skin-to-skin contact": respiratory secretions, intimate activities (kissing, hugging, massage, sexual intercourse), and touching objects, fabrics or surfaces contaminated with the mpox virus (e.g., clothes, bedding or towels). As The Fenway Institute makes clear, although mpox is spreading among some networks of gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM), “viruses and bacteria can and do infect anyone regardless of sexual orientation.” According to the CDC, those most at risk for severe outcomes include children eight years old and younger, people who are pregnant or have compromised immune systems, and those with a history of atopic dermatitis or eczema. 

  4. Two vaccines licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are currently available to prevent monkeypox (mpox). 

    JYNNEOS™ and ACAM2000 can be administered before or after a recent exposure—the sooner, the better. The CDC currently recommends vaccination for people who have had a sexual partner in the past two weeks who has been diagnosed with mpox; have had multiple sexual partners in the past two weeks in an area with known mpox cases; are at occupational risk of mpox (e.g., lab workers who perform mpox testing). Information about vaccines, including planning considerations for health departments and providers, is constantly changing. Refer to the CDC website for the latest mpox vaccine info.

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